Who will win: cryptographers or cryptanalysts?

R. Renner & R. Wolf discuss this in their paper.
“Ever since its inception, cryptography has been caught in a vicious circle: Cryptographers keep inventing methods to hide information, and cryptanalysts break them, prompting cryptographers to invent even more sophisticated encryption schemes, and so on. But could it be that quantum information technology breaks this circle? At first sight, it looks as if it just lifts the competition between cryptographers and cryptanalysts to the next level. Indeed, quantum computers will render most of today’s public key cryptosystems insecure. Nonetheless, there are good reasons to believe that cryptographers will ultimately prevail over cryptanalysts. Quantum cryptography allows us to build communication schemes whose secrecy relies only on the laws of physics as well as some minimum assumptions about the cryptographic hardware – leaving basically no room for an attack. While we are not yet there, this article provides an overview of the principles and state of the art of quantum cryptography.”